Hazardous wastes in Mexico are generated from a wide range of industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. Industrial processes generate a variety of solid, pasty, liquid or gaseous wastes, which may have some of the following characteristics: corrosive, reactive, explosive, toxic, and may present risks to human health and the environment. There are also other sources that generate hazardous wastes, such as hospitals, commerce and mining.
The risks to the environment and health caused by hazardous waste are a focus of attention, not only in Mexico, but also worldwide, which has led to the creation of regulatory provisions (laws, regulations and standards) that establish guidelines to be avoided and measures to be followed to achieve safe management in order to prevent risks, The contamination of hazardous bodies of water (mainly groundwater) caused by the improper disposal of hazardous waste has led Mexico to give high priority to hazardous waste management. Hazardous waste management includes the processes of minimization, recycling, collection, storage, treatment, transportation and disposal. Currently, industrialized countries tend to promote the minimization and recycling of hazardous waste as the environmental option.
How to dispose of chemical waste
Identify the waste produced in the laboratory activity and request the most suitable container for each type depending on the state (liquid, solid or gel), the speed of its generation and the space available in the laboratory.
Laboratory waste is classified into different categories according to its nature, hazardousness and final destination. Please classify each waste you generate into one of the groups in the following table (Consult SEPA for any doubt or clarification about the classification of waste). Download the corresponding label, filling in the blanks (substance/s contained in the container, applicant’s data). They are in fillable pdf format. For your convenience, the “applicant’s data” fields are autocopied on all labels once they have been written on any of them. Attach them to the container before you start filling it, that way everyone in your group will know what is being deposited in it.
VERY IMPORTANT: the labels include a hazard pictogram that must be printed in color, in accordance with the REACH Regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals), and preferably on four-label self-adhesive paper (If you do not have a color printer, print in black and white and color the border of the hazard pictogram with a red marker pen).
Used oil can be recycled in your own business if the oil is refined to remove all its contaminants for reuse. One of the most common methods of recycling used oil is by filtering it.
It is good practice not to mix your waste, particularly toxic waste, with used oil. Handling mixtures is more complicated and some used oil recyclers will not accept used oil even if it has been made in accordance with used oil regulations. Handling each waste separately helps to ensure that used oil can be handled only as used oil.
Used oil containing a total concentration of 1,000 parts per million of halogenated solvents is considered a listed waste; however, if you can demonstrate that the used oil does not contain a significant concentration of listed halogenated solvents, the used oil is not regulated as a listed waste. Such a demonstration can be made by taking and analyzing (for listed halogenated solvents) a sample of used oil.
Disposal of chemical residues
For this purpose, firstly, the work methodology used is described, which is framed in two main blocks: field work and cabinet work. Secondly, the specific topic is developed, focusing on the subject of oiled flock and sludge, and evaluating the applicability of the different treatment options, taking as a selection framework the option that allows maximum waste recycling, minimizes waste generation and incurs the lowest treatment cost.
As conclusions, it is obtained that it is possible to use the previously conditioned oiled sludge and sludge as industrial fuel (in brick kilns, for example) or as asphalt for roads and highways; also, that the application of only one of the treatment technologies is not enough to completely treat the wastes from a refinery; and that the selected alternative will depend on a technical, economic and environmental analysis.
The aim of this article is to set up a methodology for the evaluation of the present situation of the solid and semi-solid residues disposal in an Oil-Refinery Plant, taking into account that the problem keeps the same in all of them. Solution alternatives to the waste management problem are also set up.