Types of signature forgery pdf
The credit institution has 20 banking days to deliver the piece to the Bank of Mexico, and in turn, for this Central Institute to make the analysis and publish the result, it has a maximum of 10 banking days if it is national currency, or 20 if it is foreign currency. To know the result, you may ask at the credit institution that retained the piece, or you may consult it at:
If the piece is authentic, the bank that retained the piece will reimburse you the corresponding amount. If the piece turns out to be counterfeit or altered, it will remain in the custody of Banco de México and you will not be able to recover the corresponding amount.
In accordance with Article 48 Bis 1 of the Law of Credit Institutions, you have the right to claim the amount of the piece from the credit institution to which the ATM or bank window where you were given the PPF belongs. It is an obligation of the credit institution to attend this type of events; however, to file the claim, you only have up to 5 banking business days after the date on which the item was received.
Numerous arrests have been made for falsifying PCR tests in order, for example, to travel internationally or to gain access to restaurants. In these cases, the perpetrators and beneficiaries are also considered to have committed the crime of forgery.
In May, the newspaper El País reported the arrest of a pharmacist in the Almeria town of El Ejido for selling falsified PCRs to Moroccans so that they could travel to their country. Eldiario.es, for its part, reported at the end of last September that the Guardia Civil had dismantled a gang dedicated to the falsification and sale of illegitimate PCR tests and arrested 14 of its members in Vitoria. And La Vanguardia reported a similar case, with two detainees, in Valencia.
The production and sale of counterfeit goods is a multi-billion dollar global problem with serious economic and health implications for governments, businesses and consumers. The problem of counterfeiting is everywhere – it can affect everything we eat and watch, the medicines we take and what we wear – and all too often, in the rush to find imitations at unbeatable prices, we overlook the links between counterfeit goods and transnational organized crime.
Counterfeiting is a very lucrative business, as criminals take advantage of the continuing high demand for cheap goods on the one hand, and their low production and distribution costs on the other. They take advantage of unwary consumers and bargain hunters who exploit their desire to buy brand-name products at discounted prices, or simply their financial situation.
Altered pharmaceutical formulas are particularly dangerous because they either contain an incorrect dosage of active ingredients, or none at all, or a completely different ingredient has been used. In some cases, fraudulent drugs have been found to contain highly toxic substances such as rat poison. Moreover, fraudulent drugs deprive the sick of treatment and make them vulnerable to the disease they are supposed to be fighting. They also exacerbate some of the most dangerous diseases and viruses, contributing to the development of drug-resistant strains by preventing the normal action of the active ingredients. The more resistant strains are then passed on to other victims and the legitimate drugs they take to fight the same disease do not have the same effect.
Free forgery in graphoscopy
The analysis of the protected legal right in the crime of forgery of documents and signatures occupies a preponderant place in Jurisprudence and Law, having to consider, due to the accelerated development of technology, that nowadays there are electronic signatures, that is to say, that the analysis of documents has varied its conception, extending its focus towards the electronic type, including them as part of the legislation, understanding that when naming the term document, reference is being made to the digital and physical ones.
Based on this appreciation, this article aims to analyze the forgery of documents and the protection of the legal right in criminal matters from a theoretical approach, whose specific objectives are to describe the forgery of documents, continuing with the doctrine on the theories that investigate the protection of the legal right in the field of forgery of documents.
In compliance with the objectives of the article, the exegetical analysis was applied as a research method, which was used in conjunction with the bibliographic review of legal and doctrinal sources, associated with the collection of data in legal works endorsed by publishers and international physical and digital journals, which refer to the problem related to the theories on the protection of the legal good in the crime of document forgery.