Normal adult vital signs
Vital signs reflect essential functions of the body, including heart rate, breathing rate, temperature, and blood pressure. Your health care provider can observe, measure, and monitor your vital signs to assess your level of physical functioning.Normal vital signs change with age, sex, weight, exercise capacity, and general health.Normal ranges of vital signs for an average healthy adult while at rest are:Images.
Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Vital signs and pain assessment. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW, eds. Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination. 9th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2019:chap 6.Simel DL. Approach to the patient: history and physical examination. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 6.
How vital signs are taken
In order to determine the overall physiological state of the organism, various parameters are determined: body temperature, arterial pulse (heart rate), blood pressure and respiratory rate. The measurement of these indicators serves to evaluate the activity of the vital organs (brain, heart, lungs), and their control is a basic nursing activity.
The internal temperature of the organism remains practically constant at around 37ºC, an essential requirement for the normal development of metabolic processes. However, even under normal conditions, the results of the measurement depend on the point where it is taken: the oral temperature is 36.5 – 37.2ºC, while the axillary temperature is somewhat lower (0.2 – 0.3ºC lower), and the rectal temperature is somewhat higher (0.3 – 0.4ºC higher).
Blood pressure or blood pressure (BP) corresponds to the force exerted by the blood driven by the heart on the arterial walls and which allows circulation throughout the arterial tree, overcoming peripheral resistance. Blood pressure is usually recorded in the arm (brachial artery), but if necessary (amputation, burns) it can be taken in the thigh (popliteal artery).
Normal vital signs
The vital signs or vital signs are parameters that we must assess to know the hemodynamic status of the patient. They will be controlled by the main organs which are: heart, brain and lungs.
Each vital sign is represented by a numerical value, which must be known by the professional. The professional responsible for taking the temperature is the nurse, who must interpret, detect and evaluate the values obtained in the patient’s assessment.
In order to take the temperature we can use the mercury thermometer (buccal, axillary and rectal), digital (buccal, axillary and rectal), infrared (in the tympanum) or electronic (buccal, axillary and rectal).
What are the 5 vital signs?
Share it!Among the basic competencies of the auxiliary nursing care technician is the taking and recording of the vital signs of all the patients in the hospitalization unit to which he/she belongs. As a general rule, vitals are taken during each work shift, i.e. the patient’s vitals are taken at least three times a day.
The part of the chart used to record the constants is located in the central part, where we find the millimeter scales for temperature, pulse, respiration and blood pressure. Each constant is assigned a color as a standard rule, with red for temperature, blue for pulse, green for blood pressure and black for respiration.
Another important section of the graphic sheet is the recording of the inflow and outflow of fluids, which is very important for the patient’s water control. This section is found at the bottom of the chart, divided into inflows (fluid inflows) and outflows (fluid outflows).